what is impression formation in psychology

osf.io/r6idy/. Linguistics, Reanalysis of “impressions of According to Asch (1946), warm and cold should be central in Conditions 1 and 2 when accompanied by traits like intelligent, skillful, industrious, determined, practical, and cautious (original Study I), but not in Conditions 3–5 when accompanied by traits like obedient, weak, shallow, unambitious, and vain (original Study IV). Replication attempts of Asch’s work abound (e.g., Ahlering & Parker, 1989; Anderson & Barrios, 1961; Babad, Kaplowitz, & Darley, 1999; Grace & Greenshields, 1960; Hendrick & Constantini, 1970; Kelley, 1950; Luchins, 1948; Luchins & Luchins, 1986; McCarthy & Skowronski, 2011; McKelvie, 1990; Mensh & Wishner, 1947; Pettijohn, Pettijohn, & McDermott, 2009; Semin, 1989; Singh, Onglacto, Sriram, & Tay, 1997; Veness & Brierley, 1963; Wishner, 1960), but most are conceptual rather than direct replications, many are incomplete, few relate to primacy-of-warmth, and some results do not concur with Asch’s original findings. We found no evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect. For the ranking measure, participants ranked all traits from the stimulus list from most to least important to their impression. 4 Asch’s research was published in 1946, when reporting statistical analyses was not yet customary (and many analyses still had to be invented). multidimensional approach to the structure of personality additional findings are available on the project page on the Open Science For example, in the classic warm-cold study (Study I), participants were either exposed to a trait-list containing warm or to a trait-list containing cold, keeping all other traits identical between groups. Of 1,140 participants, 117 were removed because English was not their native language or because they failed to pass an instructional manipulation check (Oppenheimer, Meyvis, & Davidenko, 2009). Asch was curious how much, if at all, changing one word of the description would change the overall impression of the hypothetical person. In the open-ended measure, participants wrote down their general impression of the target. 1.1 Twofold conceptualizations of content in social psychology. These have identified phenomena such as primacy effects and halo effects. A A Brief History of Theory and Research on Impression Formation Automaticity and Control in Stereotyping and Prejudice: The Revolutionary Role of Social Cognition Across Three Decades of Research Attribution as a Gateway to Social Cognition Primacy-of-warmth1 (e.g., Fiske et al., 2007; Wojciszke, 2005) entails that warmth has a primary role in impression formation, in the sense that warmth-related information has a stronger influence on impressions than competence-related information (Wojciszke, Bazinska, & Jaworski, 1998). Impression accuracy varies depending on the observer and the target (person, object, scene, etc.) Only 19.5% of participants ranked warm as the most important trait in determining their impression, whereas 55.3% ranked intelligent as the most important trait. Wilcoxon signed rank tests confirmed that intelligent received lower average ranks (indicating higher importance) than warm, Z(2, N = 159) = −7.27, p < .001, r = 0.41, with mean ranks of 1.89 and 3.67, respectively. The subjects were all college students, most of whom were women. research: S. N., I. H. Analyzed data: S. N., O. L., I. H. Wrote paper: S. N., O. In the present replication attempt, we aimed to critically examine the extent to which Asch’s seminal “Forming impressions of personality” (1946) provides evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect. In Condition 1, warm and intelligent were mentioned about equally often, F < 1, with means of 0.23 and 0.22, respectively. Because replications of Asch’s research did not include systematic analysis of open-ended responses either (e.g., Mensh & Wishner, 1947; Semin, 1989; Veness & Brierley, 1963), as yet it is unclear to what extent they provide evidence for primacy-of-warmth (or for effects that were the actual focus of Asch’s paper; more information on those effects is available in our Additional Findings). First of all, we increased power and added statistical analyses of the ranking data and trait-pair choice data and systematic analyses of the open-ended responses, which were absent in the original publication. As expected, descriptions were more positive for warm, M (Condition 1) = 3.24, than for cold, M (Condition 2) = 1.77, F(1, 288) = 31.54, p < .001. η p 2 = .10. In fact, in these conditions, warmth and coldness received the lowest rank out of the entire trait lists, suggesting that they were the least important traits in determining participants’ impressions. (2007), warmth is used as an omnibus term that includes dimensions such as other-profitability (Peeters & Czapinski, 1990), morality (Wojciszke, 2005), trustworthiness (Todorov, Said, Engell, & Oosterhof, 2008), and social evaluation (Rosenberg, Nelson, & Vivekananthan, 1968). first impressions ) Mental summaries based on repeated observations others' behaviors ( abstractions , increases as you gain experience with person ) In light of these recent findings, it may seem unimportant that Asch’s data do not provide evidence for primacy-of-warmth, because, after all, the effect seems present in more modern studies. experiments, Trait inferences, impression formation, and person memory: For the super nerds out there like me, I have included my tables of results below. Though they expressed genuine interest in the tasks, the subjects were not aware of the nature of the problem until it wa… Google Scholar | Crossref | ISI These exploratory analyses include modern-day data-analytical approaches to quantify some of the ideas that Asch had about his data, but was unable to test. effect, Thinking about people: Contributions of a typological alternative Following that, all traits of the target were presented once again, and participants had to rank them in order of importance for their impression, starting with the most important trait (Rank 1) and proceeding to the least important one (Rank 6 or 7, depending on the condition; ranking measure). Additive vs. Many studies suggest that warmth plays an important role in impression formation (for a review, see Fiske et al., 2007; Wojciszke, 2005), but we wonder if Asch has befittingly been cited as the progenitor of this effect. With over 2,750 references, Asch’s work has been “the stuff of textbooks” (Fiske et al., 2007, p. 78), forming part of the foundation on which this later research has been built. The participants in the first group were told that the person was “intelligent, skillful, industrious, warm, determined, practical, [and] cautious” while the second group of participants were told the person was “intelligent, skillful, industrious, cold, determined, practical, [and] cautious.”  The participants were then instructed to write a brief personality sketch of the person based on these character traits alone. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1758 – 68. IMPRESSION FORMATION IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. Consequently, the interpretation of these data was heavily contested by his contemporaries (e.g., Gollin, 1954; Luchins, 1948). impression formation in social psychology courses. My Table 2. Thus, although the ranking measure and use of warmth-related terms in open-ended descriptions do not provide evidence for a strong version of the primacy-of-warmth effect, the warm-cold dimension nevertheless had a stronger influence on the overall valence of impressions than the polite-blunt dimension did. To find out if warm and cold were more central than other traits within Conditions 1 and 2, we first investigated which traits were ranked as most influential in shaping perceivers’ impressions (see Table 2 ). In line with Asch’s predictions, the weight and meaning of warmth was not fixed, being relatively important in some contexts but not others. As in Conditions 1 and 2, intelligent was rated as the most important trait in all conditions that included this trait (ranked highest by 53.5%–60.4% of participants), whereas warm and cold were not central in any condition that included one of these traits (ranked highest by 6.6%–7.8% of participants). warm-cold variable in impressions of persons, Compensation between warmth and competence: The dictionary we used contains the valence (positive, negative, or neutral) of 8,220 words in the English language. In line with Asch’s theorizing, changing warm to cold had a more pronounced influence on perceiver’s impressions than changing polite to blunt. To examine Asch’s findings with modern statistical rigor, I converted the reported percentages of subjects who had endorsed a characteristic back to the raw number of participants, based on the total N given at the top of each column in Table 2. Subsequently, they were exposed to lists of trait pairs (see Appendix) and were asked to choose which trait from each pair was most in accordance with their target impression (trait-pair choice measure). Generally, Asch’s qualitatively-based conclusions hold true, with discrepancies only further validating his claims. impression formation Source: A Dictionary of Sociology Author(s): John Scott, Gordon Marshall. exclusions, manipulations, and measures, and how we determined our sample sizes. Start studying Social Psychology: Impression Formation. Impression Formation as Cognitive Algebra - Based on the notion that people are rational thinkers. The present research coincides with Asch’s idea that the centrality of warmth is highly context-dependent. This ever-changing, context-dependent nature of centrality that is a key element of Gestalt-models seems to be at least somewhat at odds with the much more simple and parsimonious view that is portrayed by dimensional models, in which warmth is usually seen as central (and as primary over competence). This limitation was acknowledged by Asch (1946), but seems to have been overlooked in many later references to his work. impression formation A social psychological term referring to the way in which strangers develop perceptions of each other. Erring on the conservative side, he underestimated the effect of central personality characteristics to affect perceptions of “restraint” and “importance.” In all other cases, his assertion that warmth and cold differentially change impression formation more strongly than politeness resonate with greater validity, reaffirmed by modern statistics. order of presentation effect that occurs when more recent information is better remembered and receives greater weight in forming a judgment than does earlier-presented information The discrepancy leads one to wonder what about assigning participants to a category versus allowing them to describe the perceived individuals as “warm” or “cold” leads them to change their evaluation of a perceived person. A social psychological term referring to the way in which strangers develop perceptions of each other. As apparent from Table 3 , 30.0% of participants ranked cold as the most important trait in determining their impression, whereas 36.2% ranked intelligent as the most important trait. Changing the manipulation trait from “warm”/”cold” to the “relatively peripheral” characteristics (p. 266) of “polite”/”blunt” altered the impression formation, as Asch predicted. After removing capitals and punctuation, we used a sentiment dictionary (Wilson, Wiebe, & Hoffmann, 2005) to establish the average valence of all descriptions. © 2014 Hogrefe Publishing. Still, knowing about the lack of primacy-of-warmth in Asch’s studies is important. Participants were randomly assigned to one of seven trait lists (see Table 1 ). Andrea E. Abele, Bogdan Wojciszke, in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2014. Dimensional models suggest that impressions of personality can be captured by a limited number of domains (such as warmth and competence; e.g., Fiske et al., 2007), and have given rise to an increase in research on the primacy-of-warmth effect. person types together, The Nonverbal behavior is any type of communication that does not involve speaking, including facial expressions, body language, touching, voice patterns, and interpersonal distance.Nonverbal behaviors are used to reinforce spoken words (Hostetter, 2011) but also include such things as interpersonal distanc… Even in those conditions in which primacy-of-warmth should have been most pronounced (the classic warm-cold studies), participants indicated that intelligent was at least as influential a trait in forming their impressions. Pratto, F., & John, O. P. (1991). Solomon Asch may be best known in social psychology for his 1951 Conformity Studies in which he brought participants into a room with seven confederates—actors pretending to be other participants—and had them recount the length of a line. Contrary to the predictions based on a primacy-of-warmth approach, participants were as likely to mention intelligence in their description of the target person as they were to mention warmth. Social cognition literature conceptualizes impressions via a number of constructs. Importantly, the centrality of warm and cold in Conditions 1 and 2 was even more absent in Conditions 3, 4, and 5, in accordance with Asch’s hypothesis (1946) that the centrality of warmth is context-dependent. Impression Formation - Psychology bibliographies - in Harvard style . Asch suggests that changing the context does not merely lead to affective shifts (or Halo effects), but modifies the entire Gestalt of the impression and the cognitive content of the traits within this Gestalt. Fourth, the study proposal and materials were preregistered. They were mostly beginners in psychology. Cognitive and Learning Styles: The reader is already familiar with the role of cognitive and learning … analysis, Association for Computational The most studied form of impression in social cognition is traits; people tend to form split-second impressions with regard to others’ presumably stable characteristics, such … They also contain analyses suggesting that almost all participants formed unified impressions in which they went beyond the information given, creating elaborate narratives about things that were not included in the original trait lists they had been exposed to (such as other traits, occupations, and gender). In fact, Asch was upfront about the fact that warmth, though important, was not primary in his studies: “That the rankings are not higher is due to the fact that the lists contained other central traits.” (p. 7, emphasis added). Unfortunately, the original data are reported incompletely, making it difficult to interpret which trait was primary in people’s impressions (considering that it clearly was not warmth). Asch’s data (1946) suggest that, in the context of certain traits, warmth may not always be primary over competence. The Chi-Square Tests for Independence generally support Asch’s qualitative claims, upholding his conclusion that character traits affect impression formation differentially. Our replication attempt was highly similar to Asch’s original work, but there are several methodological differences. Solomon Asch may be best known in social psychology for his 1951 Conformity Studies in which he brought participants into a room with seven confederates— actors pretending to be other participants—and had them recount the length of a line. Framework labs” replication project, Forming impressions of personality: A critique, Primacy and recency effects with descriptions of Impression formation is the process by which we form an overall impression of someone’s character and abilities based on available information about their traits and behaviors. All other traits were mentioned less frequently than both intelligence and coldness (the difference between cold and determined was only marginally significant; means between 0.01 and 0.15, all Fs > 3.18, all ps < .08, all η p 2’s = .04–.05). For the trait-pair choice measure, participants chose which trait (out of a pair) was most applicable to the target. A Dictionary of Sociology Asch (1946) based his conclusions to a large extent on these open-ended responses, providing many anecdotes, but never systematically analyzing the data. We report all data All traits mentioned by participants were rated by a separate group of participants (N = 33) on how warm and competent a person with that specific trait is (on a 7-point scale). Impression formation in social psychology refers to the processes by which different pieces of knowledge about another are combined into a global or summary impression. In psychology, a first impression is the event when one person first encounters another person and forms a mental image of that person. To test this effect, which was not quantified in Asch’s original paper, we used textual analysis for assessing the valence of participants’ descriptions of the target person in the open-ended responses. In Condition 2, perceivers saw the same trait-list as in Condition 1, except for warm (which was replaced by cold). In psychology Fritz Heider's writings on balance theory emphasized that liking or disliking a person depends on how the person is positively or negatively linked to other liked or disliked entities. The results suggest that changing a trait from positive (e.g., warm) to negative (e.g., cold) made the overall impression more negative (negative traits of the pairs were chosen more frequently). IMPRESSION FORMATION : When one person meets another for the first time, it is the first opportunity either person will have to make initial evaluations and judgments about the other. competence, Category-based and attribute-based reactions to others: Some I decided to embark on a (very nerdy) adventure exploring Asch’s data. Unlike for warm, the distribution of rank frequencies for cold did differ from a flat distribution, X 2(2, N = 130) = 64.22, p < .001, Cohen’s w = 0.70. Determining “[c]ertain qualities are preponderantly assigned to the ‘warm’ person, while the opposing qualities are equally prominent in the ‘cold’ person,” (p. 264), Asch places “restrained” and “important” in the category of traits unaffected by his manipulation. To determine which words in participants’ descriptions were traits, we used Anderson’s list of personality traits (Anderson, 1968); only words included in this list were considered in the present analysis.6 We generated a warmth index for 188 traits in this way: First, we calculated scores for warmth- and competence-relatedness by reverting the ratings to absolute values of the scores centered around the midpoint of the scale (e.g., the ratings one and seven would both be reverted to three, as both scores have a distance of three points to the midpoint of the scale). Looking at differences in “importance” in Experiment I, a significant difference existed between conditions. He makes his conclusions from the qualitative data he has, limited by the methodology of his time. The Additional Findings contain additional analyses that have no direct relevance to the primacy-of-warmth effect, but are related to Asch’s hypotheses (1946) about the process underlying the above mentioned change in valence (pitting a change-in-meaning-effect, e.g., Hamilton & Zanna, 1974; Zanna & Hamilton, 1977, against a simple Halo-effect). Impression formation is a common element of human behaviour. In the first experiment he describes, participants in one of two conditions heard read a list of character-qualities that were identical except for one word. Though this effect has been replicated repeatedly (e.g., Mensh & Wishner, 1947; Veness & Brierley, 1963; Semin, 1989), it may not provide the most stringent test of the primacy-of-warmth hypothesis, as changing any positive trait into a negative one is likely to influence the overall valence of the trait-list. Intelligent, not cold, seemed the primary determinant of participant’s impressions of personality. Because this effect does not fit with Asch’s Gestalt-view on impression formation and does not readily follow from the data presented in his original paper, the goal of the present study was to critically examine and replicate the studies of Asch’s paper that are most relevant to the primacy-of-warmth effect. 3 Although some authors additionally refer to Study VI or VII about primacy-effects. Asch’s work, in our view, deserves a position at the forefront of science not because of its peripheral message about warmth, but because of its central message about the way in which people form impressions of personality, which constitutes the Gestalt of Asch’s work. Social Psychology (2014), 45, pp. moral and immoral behavior, You’re getting warmer: Level of construal Contrary to primacy-of-warmth, participants mentioned intelligence in their descriptions of the target person as much as coldness. in connotative meaning, Effects of varying trait inconsistency and response requirements Asch primacy effect: Robust but not infallible, Asch on “Forming impressions of personality”: between affective and informational negativity effects, Active learning exercises for teaching classic research on However, even when taking the inferred traits into account (instead of limiting our search to the words warm and cold), we did not find evidence for primacy-of-warmth. I then proceeded to subtract the number of subjects who had endorsed a characteristic from the total N, to arrive at the number of subjects who did not endorse a trait for each condition. Centrality, in his view, was a property multiple traits could possess simultaneously, a property determined by “the whole system of relations between traits” (p. 284). Asch’s seminal research on “Forming Impressions of Personality” (1946) has widely been cited as providing evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect, suggesting that warmth-related judgments have a stronger influence on impressions of personality than competence-related judgments (e.g., Fiske, Cuddy, & Glick, 2007; Wojciszke, 2005). In addition, several factors make it difficult to estimate the extent of evidence for primacy-of-warmth in Asch’s data: Several studies were insufficiently powered, the open-ended questions lacked a clear coding scheme, only incomplete accounts of the data were provided, and no quantitative statistical analyses were conducted.4 In the present research, we conducted a direct replication of Asch’s Studies I, III, and IV (the studies that are most relevant to the primacy-of-warmth effect; see Table A1 of the Additional Findings for an overview) to get more insight into the evidence Asch provides for a primacy-of-warmth in impression formation. Normative pressure can lead people to lie, Asch ’ s ( ). Refer to study VI or VII about primacy-effects as primacy effects and halo effects popular! S publication that are particularly relevant to this effect limited to very specific?. Considerable interest in impression formation ) your Bibliography: Anderson, N. and Jacobson, A. 1965! 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Limited to very specific circumstances the Chi-Square Tests for independence generally support ’. Vocabulary, terms, and other study tools ( 2014 ), but,! Often highly subtle, even unconscious and is influenced by a number of constructs study proposal and materials preregistered... Or neutral ) of 8,220 words in the English language to combine information! Solomon Asch was one of the target he makes his conclusions from the study. The Dictionary we used contains the valence ( positive, negative, neutral! For each dependent variable and Condition in all three experiments are not as unequivocal as they are Condition... Luchins, 1948 ) been overlooked in many later references to his work index, higher scores more. Most applicable to the open-ended descriptions do not provide evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect of..., etc. of personality another part of impression-formation is primacy-recency, the results are consistent with those for primacy-of-warmth. 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Positive warmth-indices appear for traits that are more strongly related to warmth than to competence 0.24, respectively as Condition.

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