raman spectroscopy wiki

[10] Generally shorter wavelength lasers give stronger Raman scattering due to the ν4 increase in Raman scattering cross-sections, but issues with sample degradation or fluorescence may result. Energy-level diagram showing the states involved in Raman spectra. / {\displaystyle I_{r}} The Raman scattered light collected is passed through a second polarizer (called the analyzer) before entering the detector. [38], In addition to paintings and artifacts, Raman spectroscopy can be used to investigate the chemical composition of historical documents (such as the Book of Kells), which can provide insight about the social and economic conditions when they were created. This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Raman_spectroscopy" ; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The Department has recently obtained a new confocal Raman instrument associated with a microscope and fiber optics. An ideal SERS substrate must possess high uniformity and high field enhancement. Cookie-policy; To contact us: mail to [email protected] Raman spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between light and matter where light is inelastically scattered: a process upon which Raman spectroscopy is based. [15] {\displaystyle \lambda _{0}} They all give the same frequency for a given vibrational transition, but the relative intensities provide different information due to the different types of interaction between the molecule and the incoming particles, photons for IR and Raman, and neutrons for IINS. Because the laser light does not excite the molecule there can be no real transition between energy levels. Systematic pioneering theory of the Raman effect was developed by Czechoslovak physicist George Placzek between 1930 and 1934. In the past, photomultipliers were the detectors of choice for dispersive Raman setups, which resulted in long acquisition times. 0 [42], SERS substrates are used to detect the presence of low-abundance biomolecules, and can therefore detect proteins in bodily fluids. When the frequency shift is large, the incident light and the Raman signal cannot both be on resonance with ωp, thus the enhancement at both stages cannot be maximal. the intensity of Raman scattering when the analyzer is aligned with the polarization of the incident laser. [47][48][49][42] Depending on the sample, the high laser power density due to microscopic focussing can have the benefit of enhanced photobleaching of molecules emitting interfering fluorescence. A Raman microscope begins with a standard optical microscope, and adds an excitation laser, a monochromator or polychromator, and a sensitive detector (such as a charge-coupled device (CCD), or photomultiplier tube (PMT)). Due to typically low absorbances of biological samples in this spectral range, the risk of damaging the specimen as well as autofluorescence emission are reduced, and high penetration depths into tissues can be achieved. The spectral information arising from this analysis is often used to understand macro-molecular orientation in crystal lattices, liquid crystals or polymer samples. If the final state is higher in energy than the initial state, the scattered photon will be shifted to a lower frequency (lower energy) so that the total energy remains the same. Be­cause vi­bra­tional fre­quen­cies are spe­cific to a mol­e­cule’s chem­i­cal bonds and sym­me­try (the fin­ger­print re­gion of or­ganic mol­e­cules is in the wavenum­ber range 500–1500 cm−1), Raman pro­vides a fin­ger­print to iden­tify mol­e­cules. Raman spectroscopy (Template:IPAc-en; named after Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. History The Raman Effect was discovered in 1928 by the Indian physicists Sir C.V. Raman […] Various types of CCDs exist which are optimized for different wavelength ranges. Electromagnetic radiation from the illuminated spot is collected with a lens and sent through a monochromator. Inelastic scattering means that the energy of the emitted photon is of either lower or higher energy than the incident photon. 1 It has already been used for the characterization of graphene layers,[45] J-aggregated dyes inside carbon nanotubes[46] and multiple other 2D materials such as MoS2 and WSe2. In order to convert between spectral wavelength and wavenumbers of shift in the Raman spectrum, the following formula can be used: where The Raman effect was named after one of its discoverers, the Indian scientist C. V. Raman, who observed the effect in organic liquids in 1928 together with K. S. Krishnan, and independently by Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam in inorganic crystals. For isotropic solutions, the Raman scattering from each mode either retains the polarization of the laser or becomes partly or fully depolarized. Δ Raman spectroscopy relies upon inelastic scattering of photons, known as Raman scattering. p This technique is being used for the characterization of large-scale devices, mapping of different compounds and dynamics study. [1] The enhancement factor can be as much as 1010 to 1011,[2][3] which means the technique may detect single molecules. As only the dipole transition leads to Raman scattering, the higher-order transitions will cause a decrease in the overall efficiency of the enhancement. [28] A huge reason why Raman spectroscopy is so useful in biological applications is because its results often do not face interference from water molecules, due to the fact that they have permanent dipole moments, and as a result, the Raman scattering cannot be picked up on. Particles that are too small lose their electrical conductance and cannot enhance the field. Figure 8 demonstrates the Raman spectrum of benzonitrile containing the stretching vibration of the cyano-group (CN) … The magnitude of the Raman effect correlates with polarizability of the electrons in a molecule. Typically a polarization scrambler is placed between the analyzer and detector also. [1] Raman won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for this discovery. Noun . You could also do it yourself at any point in time. While the first experiments were performed on electrochemically roughened silver,[6] now surfaces are often prepared using a distribution of metal nanoparticles on the surface[22] as well as using lithography[23] or porous silicon as a support. Additional modes not found in the traditional Raman spectrum can be present in the SERS spectrum, while other modes can disappear. Raman spectroscopy is a kind of technique used to describe matter by using a particular type of energy exchange known as "scattering". Based on such spectral information, a material can be identified or characterized. Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry, since vibrational information is very specific for the chemical bonds in molecules. The IRUG (Infrared and Raman Users Group) Spectral Database[41] is a rigorously peer-reviewed online database of IR and Raman reference spectra for cultural heritage materials such as works of art, architecture, and archaeological artifacts. = [4][5], SERS from pyridine adsorbed on electrochemically roughened silver was first observed by Martin Fleischmann, Patrick J. Hendra and A. James McQuillan at the Department of Chemistry at the University of Southampton, UK in 1973. For a molecule to exhibit a Raman effect, there must be a change in its electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability with respect to the vibrational coordinate corresponding to the rovibronic state. for spherical particles). Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, also called Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (CARS), is a form of spectroscopy used primarily in chemistry, physics and related fields. [9], It is usually necessary to separate the Raman scattered light from the Rayleigh signal and reflected laser signal in order to collect high quality Raman spectra using a laser rejection filter. This technology has been utilized to detect urea and blood plasma label free in human serum and may become the next generation in cancer detection and screening. is the excitation wavelength, and When the particle size approaches a few atoms, the definition of a plasmon does not hold, as there must be a large collection of electrons to oscillate together. In solid-state physics, Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize materials, measure temperature, and find the crystallographic orientation of a sample. The SERS effect is so pronounced because the field enhancement occurs twice. [43] Early detection of pancreatic cancer biomarkers was accomplished using SERS-based immunoassay approach. We have created a browser extension. Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique used in condensed matter physics and chemistry to study vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. [17] Raman is also used to study the addition of a substrate to an enzyme. B. von Halbleitern oder Pigmenten (etwa bei Kunstgegenständen). [9], The exact mechanism of the enhancement effect of SERS is still a matter of debate in the literature. The most common approach is hyperspectral imaging or chemical imaging, in which thousands of Raman spectra are acquired from all over the field of view by, for example, raster scanning of a focused laser beam through a sample. [5] The mercury arc became the principal light source, first with photographic detection and then with spectrophotometric detection. It has helped confirm the existence of low-frequency phonons[19] in proteins and DNA,[20][21][22][23] promoting studies of low-frequency collective motion in proteins and DNA and their biological functions. Raman spec­troscopy is used in chem­istry to iden­tify mol­e­cules and study chem­i­cal bond­ing. [26] The most common metals used for plasmonic surfaces are silver and gold; however, aluminium has recently been explored as an alternative plasmonic material, because its plasmon band is in the UV region, contrary to silver and gold. The gold nanoparticles facilitate the formation of a silver coating on the dye-labeled regions of DNA or RNA, allowing SERS to be performed. [64] When polarized light interacts with a molecule, it distorts the molecule which induces an equal and opposite effect in the plane-wave, causing it to be rotated by the difference between the orientation of the molecule and the angle of polarization of the light wave. Raman’s spectroscopy is commonly used in the branch of chemistry to provide a fingerprint by which molecules can be identified. Raman gas analyzers have many practical applications, for instance they are used in medicine for real-ti… [27] Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), which is less sensitive to surface layers than conventional Raman, can be used to discover counterfeit drugs without opening their packaging, and to non-invasively study biological tissue. However, Volume hologram filters are becoming more common which allow shifts as low as 5 cm−1 to be observed.[14][15]. Sophisticated signal- and image-processing techniques can be used to ignore the presence of water, culture media, buffers, and other interferences. In this case the monochromator would need to be moved in order to scan through a spectral range. Wikipedia . Intensified CCDs can be used for very weak signals and/or pulsed lasers. (For information on molecular vibration, see the wiki article “Basics of Raman spectroscopy”) When operated in the visible to near-infrared range, a Raman microscope can achieve lateral resolutions of approx. 3 Schematic of one possible dispersive Raman spectroscopy setup. The enhancement factor can be as much as 10 to 10 , which means the technique may detect single molecules. [9], Raman spectroscopy requires a light source such as a laser. [51] For example, Raman microscopy of biological and medical specimens is often performed using red to near-infrared excitation (e.g., 785 nm, or 1064 nm wavelength). Dispersive single-stage spectrographs (axial transmissive (AT) or Czerny–Turner (CT) monochromators) paired with CCD detectors are most common although Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers are also common for use with NIR lasers. In this experiment we will study both kinds of applications. Having the full spectroscopic information available in every measurement spot has the advantage that several components can be mapped at the same time, including chemically similar and even polymorphic forms, which cannot be distinguished by detecting only one single wavenumber. For in­stance, Raman and IR spec­tra were used to de­ter­mine the vi­bra­tional fre­quen­cies of SiO, Si2O2, and Si3O3 on the basis of nor­mal co­or­di­nate analyses.Raman is also used to … Raman spectroscopy can be divided into things called the parts of Raman spectroscopy. Ang Raman spectroscopy na ipinangalan sa nakadiskubre nito, si Sir C.V. Raman, ay isang mabilis, kapaki-pakinabang, hindi-mapanirang kasangkapan batay sa hindi nababanat na pagkalat ng isang kulay sa ilaw. Raman spectroscopy can be used for microscopic analysis, with a spatial resolution in the order of 0.5-1 µm. While conventional Raman spectroscopy identifies chemical composition, polarization effects on Raman spectra can reveal information on the orientation of molecules in single crystals and anisotropic materials, e.g. Etymology . {\displaystyle \omega =\omega _{p}/{\sqrt {3}}} The energy difference corresponds to absorbed vibrational energy. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. [44] This technique would be less stressful on the patients than constantly having to take biopsies which are not always risk free. is the Raman spectrum wavelength. Using the correct polymorphic form in bio-pharmaceutical formulations is critical, since different forms have different physical properties, like solubility and melting point. - HORIBA", "Controlled Vapor Phase Growth of Single Crystalline, Two-Dimensional Ga, "Integrated Raman- and angular-scattering microscopy", "Stable optical trapping and sensitive characterization of nanostructures using standing-wave Raman tweezers", "Prospects for the diagnosis of breast cancer by noninvasive probing of calcifications using transmission Raman spectroscopy", "Near-Infrared Micro-Raman Spectroscopy for in Vitro Detection of Cervical Cancer", "International symposium on electromagnetic sensing of the earth from satellites", "Remote-Raman Spectroscopy at Intermediate Ranges Using Low-Power cw Lasers", "Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectromicroscopy of Co(II)-Tetraphenylporphyrin on Au(111): Toward the Chemists' Microscope", "Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectromicroscopy on the Angstrom Scale: Bare and CO-Terminated Ag Tips", "Microscopy with a single-molecule scanning electrometer", DoITPoMS Teaching and Learning Package – Raman Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy in analysis of paintings, Rotating-polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, Cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy, Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, Glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, Vibrational spectroscopy of linear molecules, Multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan, Laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy, Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization, Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization, Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System, ZEUS-HLONS (HMMWV Laser Ordnance Neutralization System), Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски. = It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. The scattered light can be detected by a Raman spectrometer and represents a “chemical fingerprint” of the substance. Selection of the laser wavelength mainly depends on optical properties of the sample and on the aim of the investigation. For those frequencies for which the Raman signal is only slightly shifted from the incident light, both the incident laser light and the Raman signal can be near resonance with the plasmon frequency, leading to the E4 enhancement. [29] To meet this need, plasmonic paper has experienced widespread attention in the field, with highly sensitive SERS substrates being formed through approaches such as soaking,[30][31][32] in-situ synthesis,[33][34] screen printing[35] and inkjet printing. [39] It also offers a noninvasive way to determine the best method of preservation or conservation of such cultural heritage artifacts, by providing insight into the causes behind deterioration.[40]. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY | QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL THEORIES OF RAMAN SCATTERING, Raman Effect | Raman's Spectrum and Applications, Basic Principle of Raman Spectroscopy(B.Sc, M.Sc). Photodiode arrays and photomultiplier tubes were common prior to the adoption of CCDs. Another way that the technique is used is to study changes in chemical bonding, e.g. In the years following its discovery, Raman spectroscopy was used to provide the first catalog of molecular vibrational frequencies. Rufus Ritchie, of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Health Sciences Research Division, predicted the existence of the surface plasmon. Raman spectroscopy relies upon inelastic scattering of photons, known as Raman scattering.A source of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible spectrum, infrared, or ultraviolet range is used, although X-rays can also be used. [13] SERS enhancement can occur even when an excited molecule is relatively far apart from the surface which hosts metallic nanoparticles enabling surface plasmon phenomena. [63], The symmetry of a vibrational mode is deduced from the depolarization ratio ρ, which is the ratio of the Raman scattering with polarization orthogonal to the incident laser and the Raman scattering with the same polarization as the incident laser: [44] The data can be used to generate images showing the location and amount of different components. Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! Raman spectroscopy also has important scientific applications in studying molecular structure. Since wavelength is often expressed in units of nanometers (nm), the formula above can scale for this unit conversion explicitly, giving, Modern Raman spectroscopy nearly always involves the use of lasers as excitation light sources. Raman spectroscopy in analysis of paintings, ColourLex Ultima editare a paginii a fost efectuată la 31 iulie 2019, ora 04:35. SERS combined with plasmonic sensing can be used for high-sensitivity and quantitative analysis of small molecules in human biofluids,[51] quantitative detection of biomolecular interaction,[52] and to study redox processes at the single molecule level. Raman signal enhancements are achieved through non-linear optical effects, typically realized by mixing two or more wavelengths emitted by spatially and temporally synchronized pulsed lasers. Raman spectra of different solvents.pdf 2,000 × 1,125; 37 KB Raman spectra of drugs.jpg 590 × 368; 18 KB Raman Spectroscopy device by Bruker.jpg 2,048 × 1,536; 974 KB 2. Raman spectroscopy is a technique commonly used to identify molecules in the field of Chemistry by their vibrational, rotational and other low-frequency modes. In solid state chemistry and the bio-pharmaceutical industry, Raman spectroscopy can be used to not only identify active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), but to identify their polymorphic forms, if more than one exist. Conversely, relatively neutral bonds (e.g. Polypropylene fibers exhibit similar shifts. The database is open for the general public to peruse, and includes interactive spectra for over a hundred different types of pigments and paints. The field enhancement is greatest when the plasmon frequency, ωp, is in resonance with the radiation ( [10][11], Raman scattered light is typically collected and either dispersed by a spectrograph or used with an interferometer for detection by Fourier Transform (FT) methods. Because a Raman microscope is a diffraction-limited system, its spatial resolution depends on the wavelength of light, the numerical aperture of the focusing element, and — in the case of confocal microscopy — on the diameter of the confocal aperture. [9][12] Due to these characteristics, Raman spectroscopy is also known as an optical biopsy technique. For example, antibodies and gold particles can be used to quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity. Raman Spectroscopy. [24][25] Two dimensional silicon nanopillars decorated with silver have also been used to create SERS active substrates. Typically, a sample is illuminated with a laser beam. [43] A SERS-base multiplex protein biomarker detection platform in a microfluidic chip is used to detect several protein biomarkers to λ [55], One common way in which selection rules are modified arises from the fact that many molecules that have a center of symmetry lose that feature when adsorbed to a surface. Because lasers were not available until more than three decades after the discovery of the effect, Raman and Krishnan used a mercury lamp and photographic plates to record spectra. 4 The modes observed in any spectroscopic experiment are dictated by the symmetry of the molecules and are usually summarized by Selection rules. [19] This resonance Raman enhancement is dominant in SERS for species on small nanoclusters with considerable band gaps,[19] because surface plasmon appears only in metal surface with near-zero band gaps. Raman scattering also contrasts with infrared (IR) absorption, where the energy of the absorbed photon matches the difference in energy between the initial and final rovibronic states. [53], SERS-based immunoassays can be used for detection of low-abundance biomarkers. The Raman effect is based on the interaction between the electron cloud of a sample and the external electric field of the monochromatic light, which can create an induced dipole moment within the molecule based on its polarizability. There are two primary theories and while their mechanisms differ substantially, distinguishing them experimentally has not been straightforward. [13], It was once common to use monochromators coupled to photomultiplier tubes. I The laser light interacts with molecular vibrations, phonons or other excitations in the system, resulting in the energy of the laser photons being shifted up or down. Raman spectroscopy has a wide variety of applications in biology and medicine. ), which can lend insight into the corrosive environments experienced by the artifacts. Raman Spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique which is used to analyze vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. This has several potential applications: For example, Cao et al. [9] This may still be used to record very small Raman shifts as holographic filters typically reflect some of the low frequency bands in addition to the unshifted laser light. Research in 2015 on a more powerful extension of the SERS technique called SLIPSERS (Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous SERS)[11] has further supported the EM theory. Infrared spectroscopy typically yields similar, complementary, information. The photons that were scattered by the sample were collected through an optical flat at the end of the tube. New Probe Detects Trace Pollutants in Groundwater", "Ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection in common fluids", http://www.kurzweilai.net/single-molecule-detection-of-contaminants-explosives-or-diseases-now-possible, Modern Raman Spectroscopy: A Practical Approach, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: a Brief Perspective, "Inkjet-Printed Fluidic Paper Devices for Chemical and Biological Analytics Using Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy", "Batch fabrication of disposable screen printed SERS arrays", "Highly Sensitive Filter Paper Substrate for SERS", "Seed-mediated Plasmon-driven Regrowth of Silver Nanodecahedrons (NDs)", Surface-enhanced Vibrational Spectroscopy, "Study of silver films over silica beads as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for detection of benzoic acid", "Label-Free Nanometer-Resolution Imaging of Biological Architectures through Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering", "Machine learning algorithms enhance the specificity of cancer biomarker detection using SERS-based immunoassays in microfluidic chips", "Recent developments in quantitative SERS moving: towards absolute quantification", "Nanoparticles with Raman Spectroscopic Fingerprints for DNA and RNA Detection", "The orientation of 2,2′-bipyridine adsorbed at a SERS-active Au(111) electrode surface", Rotating-polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Surface-enhanced_Raman_spectroscopy&oldid=992691875, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 16:32. when a substrate is added to an enzyme. In nanotechnology, a Raman microscope can be used to analyze nanowires to better understand their structures, and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes is commonly used to evaluate their diameter. However, modern instrumentation almost universally employs notch or edge filters for laser rejection. Elastic scattered radiation at the wavelength corresponding to the laser line (Rayleigh scattering) is filtered out by either a notch filter, edge pass filter, or a band pass filter, while the rest of the collected light is dispersed onto a detector. This chemical mechanism probably occurs in concert with the electromagnetic mechanism for metal surface. [30] Lastly, Raman gas analyzers have many practical applications, including real-time monitoring of anesthetic and respiratory gas mixtures during surgery. [36][37][38], The shape and size of the metal nanoparticles strongly affect the strength of the enhancement because these factors influence the ratio of absorption and scattering events. Spontaneous Raman scattering is typically very weak; as a result, for many years the main difficulty in collecting Raman spectra was separating the weak inelastically scattered light from the intense Rayleigh scattered laser light (referred to as "laser rejection"). {\displaystyle I_{u}} [43][44], SERS can be used to target specific DNA and RNA sequences using a combination of gold and silver nanoparticles and Raman-active dyes, such as Cy3. Raman spectroscopy is a noninvasive optical technique that can be used as an aid in diagnosing certain diseases and as an alternative to more invasive diagnostic techniques such as the biopsy. r Raman spectroscopy exhibits divisibility. As the name suggests, this phenomenon is named after Sir C. V. Raman. Such substrates can be fabricated on a wafer scale and label-free superresolution microscopy has also been demonstrated using the fluctuations of surface enhanced Raman scattering signal on such highly uniform, high-performance plasmonic metasurfaces. There are many other variations of Raman spectroscopy including surface-enhanced Raman, resonance Raman, tip-enhanced Raman, polarized Raman, stimulated Raman, transmission Raman, spatially-offset Raman, and hyper Raman. [20][21], While SERS can be performed in colloidal solutions, today the most common method for performing SERS measurements is by depositing a liquid sample onto a silicon or glass surface with a nanostructured noble metal surface. Contents[show] Divisibility Can Raman spectroscopy exhibit divisibility? Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? It is convenient in polarized Raman spectroscopy to describe the propagation and polarization directions using Porto's notation,[60] described by and named after Brazilian physicist Sergio Pereira da Silva Porto. At each stage the electric field is enhanced as E2, for a total enhancement of E4. [8] The usual purpose is to enhance the sensitivity (e.g., surface-enhanced Raman), to improve the spatial resolution (Raman microscopy), or to acquire very specific information (resonance Raman). Applications of Raman imaging range from materials sciences to biological studies. To maximize the sensitivity, the sample was highly concentrated (1 M or more) and relatively large volumes (5 mL or more) were used. ", "What is polarised Raman spectroscopy? Raman spectroscopy named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.. Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry to provide a structural fingerprint by … [18], Resonance Raman spectroscopy explains the huge enhancement of Raman scattering intensity. It has, however, surprisingly also been shown to have a large enhancement in the infrared, which is not fully understood. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy or surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a surface-sensitive technique that enhances Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures such as plasmonic-magnetic silica nanotubes. Scattering takes place when a powerful light source, usually a laser, strikes a sample, and a portion of the laser light is scattered in various directions. The analyzer is oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the polarization of the laser.

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