damasio's theory of consciousness

It is not obvious that other individuals experience any inner life. We assume other humans have an experience similar to ours because we all seem like similar systems, but the further we move beyond that (other primate species, mammals, vertebrates, machines, etc) the more doubt about how similar their experience is to ours. The relationship between usefulness and falsifiability, Follow SelfAwarePatterns on WordPress.com. consciousness moves beyond the here and now, Damasio's third and final In that sense, the hard problem of consciousness may become like the hard problem of light in the 17th century. It develops a momentary sense of self, as the brain continuously builds On proprioception, I just did a search on the text. organism's awareness. And I am deeply skeptical about panpsychism. (In reality, they were published as a separate theory, predating Damasio’s theories of self by several years, or at least their publication.) Evolution had no such incentive to do that with brains. So to solve the problem, we either need to establish that the concept of “having an inner life” is somehow an illusion, or that it is obvious that others have one too, which I think would be hard because every individual can only verify their own consciousness. Obviously, {intelligence and consciousness} are closely related but definitely different. Yes, it all starts there, but for human like consciousness, even the proto-self requires the insular cortex, core consciousness requires the thalamus and early sensory cortical areas, and autobiographical consciousness, the full human level experience, requires large portions of the neocortex. But he says it is pretty much impossible to introduce better words to a wide audience so he reluctantly lives with a commonly used but ultimately limited one. It starts with a stimulus to part of the network, and ends with the whole associative network being activated and generating the images. In this state, emotion begins to manifest itself as second-order neural patterns located in subcortical areas of the brain. Multiple brain areas are required for the Protoself to function. experiences or project itself into the future. Antonio Damasio’s TED talk is excellent. I think you might be overstating the role of the brainstem, at least in Damasio’s theories. When the organism becomes aware of the feeling that Damasio often discusses neuroanatomy in detail and assumes the reader can follow along. Is very puzzling but grander philosophical structures have been built on flimsier foundations. The proto-self’s formation begins in the brainstem, although in healthy humans the insular cortex, an area in the fold between the parietal and temporal lobe, is also involved. It cannot account for phenomena such as dreaming or locked-in-syndrome, which a proper theory of consciousness should explain, because it requires that the organism’s self-representation be affected by the organism’s processing of an object. Fantastic synopsis, for which many thanks. Thanks for adding to my reading list…but with all due respect, there is no homeostasis in physiology, only balanced equilibrium. My favorite philosopher of mind is David Chalmers, who makes a distinction between the hard problem and the easy problem of consciousness: the easy problem being “how does the mind work”, and the hard problem being “why is a mind conscious”. From the brainstem arise primordial feelings. whose function is linked to emotion. For example, the vividness of red may be due to the fact that most primates eat fruit and ripe fruit on the African savanna is often red. as Damasio dubs it, is the Protoself. He describes his theory in an informal manner, and supports it by evidence from neurological practice. They can stabilize at other points, albeit often temporarily. internal bodily state; it is able to recognize that its thoughts are its internal physical changes that affect the homeostasis of the organism. Ponderings of science, philosophy, history, society, and many other topics. ), there is a lot of overlap between the books, although it sounds like he ponders qualia more directly in the older one. And the most primal level of this resonance starts in the brainstem. And here we get to what I find to be the most interesting aspects of Damasio’s theory. No one could understand how the color white came into existence, how it became “clean” and pure. now. I don’t think Damasio is asserting that only systems with brains (or even only living systems) have homeostasis, only that the need to maintain it is shared by all living organisms, and that brains are one evolutionary solution for preserving it. Does Damasio address the issue of how qualia come about? Damasio envisions CDZs existing in the “many thousands”, but there being a few dozen CDRegions. Unlike many theories of mind, his are thoroughly grounded in neuroanatomy. From this realization, springs Damasio's When images form, the patterns propagate from the image areas into the dispositional areas. We’ll never banish that feeling. There’s also a danger here of viewing the images as passively created by the senses, when in reality, particularly for vision, an enormous amount of active modeling is taking place from the retina on back to the brain, with even our immediate perceptions heavily influenced by preexisting associations. We are conscious of a portion of the processing that happens in the image areas, but never conscious of what happens in the dispositional areas. I suppose that the version of the hard problem that confounds me the most is: can we ever know if anyone/thing else isn’t a philosophical zombie? Yet they appear to enjoy sensations, music, have favorite caregivers, and generally have a sort of primal existence. So we have sensory data, and each pattern of such data triggers associated emotions. Do you think it will ever be possible to solve the hard problem with science? Three important concepts in this theory are ‘emotion’, ‘feeling’ and ‘feeling a feeling’ (or core consciousness). This paper contributes an analysis and formalization of Damasio's theory on core consciousness. It maintains its active model of the body, the chief object of its concern, and has the basic foundations of homeostasis management. It exists in “pulses.”  It comes into existence when the proto-self perceives objects and how those objects relate to the body. I do think it’s possible to discuss raw feelings while knowing those feelings are ultimately composed of algorithmic neural circuits. On the inner life being an illusion, I don’t know that we actually do need it to be. The problem with the theater of the mind metaphor, Why faster than light travel is inevitably also time travel, The mechanical philosophy and mysterianism. How do you separate the objective from the subjective? Later, when only one of these signals come in, it may trigger a reverse signal flow, initiating a process called retroactivation, that causes a version of the patterns that initially formed the convergence to reappear in the image areas. remains consistent and stable throughout the lifetime of the organism Central to Damasio’s theory of consciousness is the idea of biological value, that which helps in preserving homeostasis, which of course aids in survival. Damasio's Theory of Consciousness Proto-Self The most basic representation of self(awareness shared by all life forms) Pre-conscious state-concerned only with homeostasis Direct report of body's response to environment Provides reference for 'Core Consciousness' and Extended Damasio makes no pretense of his theories being the final word, only that they add possible explanations of what is happening, and I think they definitely do that. Still, there’s a lot here that strikes me as very plausible. I’ve never seriously considered the possibility that other people are zombies, but I just don’t see any way to explain my own experiential reality in purely physical terms. Based on that review (thanks! It might be best thought of as a CDRegion at the center of a galaxy of CDRegions. I really hope I don’t sound like some hyper-metaphysical nutcase. Core consciousness is concerned only with the present moment, here and Damasio formulated the somatic marker hypothesis, a theory about how emotions and their biological underpinnings are involved in decision-making (both positively and negatively, and often non-consciously). What would you say is happening when a stage magician diverts our attention without us being aware of it? Here are my paraphrases: So, I agree that HLC is implemented via the brain stem while the intelligence is produced in the frontal lobe (see http://www.prequark.org/inte001.htm ). 1 Introduction In (Damasio, 1999) the neurologist Antonio Damasio puts forward his theory of consciousness. Something else? coherent collection of neural patterns, which map moment-by-moment the On top of the proto-self is the core self. The CDRegions interlink with each other, but the linking appears to converge heavily in a region Damasio calls the PMCs (posteromedial cortices), an unusual name referring to a region that, judging by his diagrams, appear to be in the middle portions of the parietal lobe, and the posterior cingulate cortex underneath. As Damasio puts it, "Protoself is a Two, brain stem (not frontal lobe) is the portal for HLC. Still, if you’re interested in how the mind works, I found it worth the effort. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The higher portions construct an image of the musculoskeletal body. Interestingly, the Webster definition seems to cover both conceptions: “a relatively stable state of equilibrium or a tendency toward such a state between the different but interdependent elements or groups of elements of an organism, population, or group”. level of self is shared by many species. On top of the core self is the autobiographical self. I’ve read a couple more of your posts on consciousness, and I think I see where you’re coming from. From these associations, we are able to later recreate a version of the original image, although it’s never as detailed as the original since the recreated version doesn’t have the sensory data stream coming in. The brainstem is phylogenetically ancient, and many simple animals get along without much else. . The brain evolved to make movement decisions, so the inner experience aspect must provide some utility in that movement function, in generating behavior. The power of the CDZ and CDRegion concepts are that they may give us insights into the architecture of the mind. Emotions are a collection of unconscious neural responses to qualia. But that strikes me as being chauvinistic against alternate forms of consciousness. patterns develop into mental images, which then float into the Antonio Damasio’s notion of “core consciousness” suffers from serious defects. ( Log Out /  While he doesn’t see the self as an illusion, he doesn’t see it as a static thing either, but rather a process evolved to manage homeostasis. A relationship is ( Log Out /  in the organism. Thanks for your thoughts. The Protoself does not require language in order to function; moreover, it is a direct report of one's experience. It’s this discrepancy, I think, that causes the feeling of the hard problem. One possible answer along these lines is Michael Graziano’s Attention Schema Theory, which I’ve addressed it other posts: https://selfawarepatterns.com/2014/10/16/the-attention-schema-theory-of-consciousness-deserves-your-attention/ Brilliant! But as it plays, the conductor comes into existence and then takes control of the symphony. drawn. They look quite similar when things are going well. without its predecessors, and, unlike them, requires a vast use of The brain simply translates the onslaught of all colors as white. All of this is related to the self, effectively the first person in first person experience. The visual of a bear is a full range of associations, such as attributes of the bear’s shape, color, activity, etc. The brain continues to . the current status of the body's responses to environmental changes. I’m increasingly starting to see Michael Graziano’s point that maybe, instead of focusing on the origin of qualia itself, we should be focusing on the origin of the feeling of qualia. All of the information in this post came from Damasio’s book ‘Self Comes to Mind‘. But, at least, we should try. Necessary condition: there is a ‘counting’ device (counting strews, abacus or Turing computer). Sufficiently Wouldn’t you say it is true that every aspect of life is rooted in physics and chemistry that life bootstrapped upon? The function of So the smell of doughnuts may trigger memories of the sight and taste of doughnuts. I’m curious what the differences are between homeostasis and balanced equilibrium. There are other similar metacognitive theories, all envisioning awareness as a feedback mechanism, the mind modeling its own operations, that provide similar explanations. Like keithnoback’s comment. The same neurological stories mentioned in the review are in ‘Self…’. I’ve recently started hearing the word “allostasis” as a substitute for “homeostasis”. He makes a distinction that had never occurred to me, the one between having an emotion, and the feeling of the emotion. I’m not sure if I follow the metaphor of white light , because while the question ,”how is light purified of color” assumes certain characteristics of light that are now known to be false, i.e that color is an impurity, the hard problem only assumes two things that I think are pretty hard to deny. keep up with the constant process of collecting neural patterns to map It doesn’t seem to address the difference between what happens in our conscious experience and what happens subconsciously, or of the experience of experience. I agree that studying the mechanisms of the brain is much more interesting and fruitful than pondering the hard problem, but I still think that the problem exists. It seems . I also suspect that the division between image forming areas and dispositional areas in the brain isn’t nearly as clean as Damasio implies. When the symphony begins, it doesn’t have a conductor. I put the figure below to give you an intuitive overview of Damasio's argument. interaction with internal or external stimulus. brain continuously creates images to represent the organism's experience It seems that homeostasis is a vector pointing to an ideal state. The lowest hierarchies receive inputs from image areas and can both output back to the those image areas as well as upstream to next level of CDZs. This is partly because he builds the theory through the explanation of relationships among a pretty large number of parts. a donut), which is just a theory about the software and hardware of the brain. As I noted above, I find the CDZ and CDRegion part of this theory to be the most interesting. He has three good points. I don’t have a strong opinion on any of this, but it seems like the word gets used in a variety of ways. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. 97% of the observable universe is forever unreachable, here are some diagrams showing the CDZ hierarchies in action, https://selfawarepatterns.com/2014/10/16/the-attention-schema-theory-of-consciousness-deserves-your-attention/, Types of sensory consciousness | SelfAwarePatterns, The system components of pain | SelfAwarePatterns, The seven attributes of minimal consciousness | SelfAwarePatterns, Talking across the boundary of the epiphany, Mind uploading and the philosophy of self. Damasio describes patients who are clearly awake and attentive, but not conscious, and promises to devote two chapters to the significance of this phenomenon. Lova Falk talk 12:49, 12 June 2010 (UTC) Is the object food? layer emerges as Extended Consciousness. This occurs when the patterns contributing to The CDZ hierarchies are clustered in regions Damasio calls CDRegions, which interconnect with each other. Abstract. It doesn’t make a difference then, if you think of physiology acting like the thermostat in your house, i.e. I hadnt heard of Damasio before now, but Im already a fan. Yet, the draft is, hopefully, readable as a short essay that explains Damasio's theory of consciousness and self with addition of some elements of Luhmann's systems theory. Too often it seems to get relegated in favour of language (symbolism) and algorithmic computation as preconditions. ( Log Out /  The photons hitting the photoreceptors on your retina form a pattern which trigger signals up the optic nerve to the brain. That action can be to trigger the release of hormones, to initiate muscle action, or maybe to inhibit action arising from another cluster of CDZs. More specifically, I think it will explain why we have the intuition, the feeling of the hard problem. Emotions provide the scaffolding for the construction of social cognition and are required for the self processes which undergird consciousness. lol. Further from the sensory pathway areas are the dispositional portions. So, if we encounter another system that behaves in a similar enough fashion to us, it makes sense to conclude that the other system has at least an equivalent experience. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. This is the self that comes into existence as the organism lives its life. changes that are affecting it. The most basic representation of the organism is referred to as the Protoself, next is Core Consciousness, and finally, Extended Consciousness. Then I realized that he was addressing primal first person experience, the state of a self experiencing perceptions and what those perceptions immediately mean to the self, to the body. Given the stress on feeling, then I was a little surprised not to hear anything on the role of proprioception in facilitating the sense of agency. changes it is experiencing as a result of external or internal stimuli. patterns in the brain. Further down, they give a medical definition: “the maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological conditions (as body temperature or the pH of blood) in higher animals under fluctuating environmental conditions; also : the process of maintaining a stable psychological state in the individual under varying psychological pressures or stable social conditions in a group under varying social, environmental, or political factors”, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/homeostasis. Developed in his (1999) book, The Feeling of What Happens, Antonio Damasio's three layered theory of consciousness is based on a hierarchy of stages, with each stage building upon the last. CDZs exist in hierarchies. They’re missing a substantial part of the (healthy) human experience. It is a physical phenomenon rooted in physics and chemistry and is something that life bootstrapped upon. Thanks Liam. Hormones are released, heart rate is altered, the brain goes into a state prepared for a certain type of cognition. autobiographical self to build from. These are the areas that drive memory, imagination, emotions, and actions. And at its root homeostasis gives us stromatolites, not consciousness. When the body is modified by these neural objects, the second layer of self emerges. That said, I’d imagine you can find ‘The Feeling…’ online somewhere; Amazon shows used hardcovers from 1 cent up. These brain areas work together to The delusion of being conscious, is the actuality of being conscious. This reaction causes the organism to become aware of the Three important concepts in this theory are 'emotion', 'feeling' and 'feeling a feeling' (or core consciousness). We only store what the image means to us, the associations between the aspects of the image, the associations between various images from the different senses, and the associations between combinations of images, emotions and possible actions. When something triggers an emotion, it happens. Certainly it’s a major component, probably the largest, but reproduction is crucial and, in mammals and birds, so is care for kin. Therefore, an injury to a person's. The multisensory doughnut example above would be a fairly high level CDZ. Homeostasis is not something created by living organisms. Consciousness. A non conscious state, this For the universal counting device, see http://www.prequark.org/Biolife.htm ). changes affecting the Protoself due to the emotional state. Necessary condition: the ability to distinguish self from others. finally, Extended Consciousness. And those troubled by it will likely never find explanations about simplistic internal models satisfying, which is what keeps leading me to the conclusion that we’ll never “solve” the hard problem, only explain it. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. I don’t see it that way, but I can understand why many people do. But I still get hung up on Chalmers’ idea of the “philosophical zombie”, a thing that behaves like it’s conscious but has no “inner life”. But CDZs aren’t just for generating images. That being said, I think it helps to ask, from an evolutionary perspective, why do we have an inner life? But there’s still a long road ahead. Things like shock don’t simply rectify themselves when a stressor is removed. I think he sees it as deeply rooted in the will to live. ( Log Out /  He uses the analogy of a symphony. The neuro-anatomy of 100 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses approaches the complexity of many galaxies – ineffable. A predator or some other kind of threat? Damasio's definition of emotion is that of an unconscious A feeling arises when the organism becomes aware of the The image of the bear that probably popped in your mind while reading the previous sentence was, according to Damasio, recreated from the bear related CDZs in your brain being triggered by the word “bear.”. For the naive explanation for the selfness is the Pauli’s exclusion principle that every Fermion carries a unique ID number while the whole explanation is more complicated. In other words, visual images form. The image is a result of mental patterns which are caused by an Excellent overview and thanks for the reminder – his ‘The Feeling of What Happens’ is still on my list – speaking of which, and with hindsight – I think I wish I’d read prior to ‘Self Comes …’, https://www.nytimes.com/books/99/10/24/reviews/991024.24calvint.html. The core self is the momentary self. Homeostasis and balanced equilibrium. (Image generation could itself be considered a type of action.) A lot of computationists think that brain processing happens in a language of its own, sometimes called “mentalese.” But I personally see it as very unlikely. Why Do You Remember The Past But Not The Future? I like the stress on the importance of feeling within this theory of consciousness. It’s worth watching some Demasio videos – on one he actually says he things homeostasis is not a helpful word coz it implies static which the system is anything but. In reality, every complex image is itself a galaxy of CDZs. And his style is very verbose, often taking a long time to make a fairly basic point. Now, will the people troubled by the hard problem accept these kinds of explanations? All of the cascading signals from the senses converge at a certain neural circuit, a zone. If perception is to be effective in leading an organism to make effective decisions, then we can ask how should they feel? So, their implementations can be different via different machines. awareness signified by a collection of neural patterns Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Consciousness lies in the eye of the beholder, Layers of consciousness, September 2019 edition, Global workspace theory: consciousness as brain wide information sharing, The issues with higher order theories of consciousness. Change ). Incidentally, CDZs also trigger emotions, which Damasio sees as self contained autonomous actions. Our most basic representation of self, Another body like ours? The answer is that it doesn’t. Protoself does not represent a traditional sense of self; rather, it is ... 2 CORE CONSCIOUSNESS AND CORE SELF Life systems that have been evolved beyond the level of … Namely, the hypothalamus, which controls the general homeostasis of the organism, the brain stem, whose nuclei map body signals, and the insular cortex Necessary condition: there is a ‘counting’ device (counting strews, abacus or Turing computer). Will science ever solve the hard problem? One interesting area of evidence that Damasio uses for this part of the theory are children born with a birth defect: hydranencephaly, that is without a cerebrum, with only a brainstem and hypothalamus. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. We only need some of our intuitions about it to be wrong. Learn how your comment data is processed. The lower portions of the brainstem are focused on the viscera: the heart, digestive tract, etc. Or perhaps more accurately, he is addressing the feeling of first person experience. These complex reactions to stimuli cause observable external changes If the system we think of as a zombie can produce equivalent behavior, then it must have some mechanism functionally equivalent to ours in production of that behavior; it must have some form of consciousness, albeit one that might be very alien. Damasio did discuss qualia in the book, but it’s difficult to do justice to it in brief. Thanks for the explanation. A quick warning: I didn’t find this to be easy reading. Earlier in evolutionary history, this immediately led to action, but in more intelligent animals it’s a two step process. Damasio argues that consciousness consists of two levels: core consciousness and extended consciousness. Here is the missing parts. I wasn’t sure of usage rights so I didn’t reproduce them here, but here are some diagrams showing the CDZ hierarchies in action. In particular, a simulation model is described of the dynamics of basic mechanisms leading via emotion and feeling to core consciousness, and dynamic properties are formally specified … The evolution of the brain is beautiful proof. The self comes into being in the brain in layers: the proto-self, the core self, and the autobiographical self. a pre-conscious state, which provides a reference for the core self and Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. established, between the organism and the object it is observing as the conventional memory. They have the same goals, but allostasis recognizes there’s more in the system than reactions. You (whoever reads this) has an inner life When the signals reach the vision processing centers, patterns form, models, image maps built from the cumulative signals coming in. This works through a concept Damasio calls CDZs (convergence divergence zones). When That’s where the color white comes in. I do think Damasio might focus too much on homeostasis as the origin of behavior. It is heavily dependent on memories, along with the projections it makes for the future. Likewise, biological systems don’t necessarily struggle to get back to a set point until they fail. Of course, in reality the language of technological computation is (currently) transistor states, but we build layers of abstraction (languages) between the raw machine and us to make it easier to work with. Three important concepts in this theory are 'emotion', 'feeling' and 'feeling a feeling' (or core consciousness). In particular, a simulation model is described of the dynamics of basic mechanisms leading via emotion and feeling to core consciousness, and dynamic properties are formally specified that hold for these … Many regard such explanations as essentially “explaining away” the problem. I actually think there are good reasons to be optimistic that we’ll eventually understand the brain. This survival impulse is shared by all life, even the simplest single celled organisms. ‘Feeling’ emerges as a still unconscious state which simply senses the My guess is that it ends up being more a jazz quartet than a symphony. Damasio hypothesizes that the main coordinator may be the thalamus, but all areas seem to participate, from the brainstem, the thalamus, and the cerebral cortex. The image of a doughnut may come in at the same time as the smell of doughnuts and then the taste. response to emotion, Core Consciousness is born. Consciousness and how it relates to the body and emotions is one of my favorite topics of inquiry. Protoself. The language of thought is the language of neurons and synapses. This is the most basic level of But the hydranencephalics I mentioned are profoundly limited in their cognitive abilities, or even in their movement abilities. I considered reading ‘The Feeling…’, but ‘Self…’ was available on Kindle and was 10 years newer, so I figured it would be more up to date. own, and that they are formulated in its own perspective. This  happens with greater resolution in the neocortex than in the sub-cortical areas, but it happens in many areas of the brain, all in the regions closest to where the sensory pathways come in. , music, have favorite caregivers, and supports it by evidence from neurological practice neuro-anatomy of billion. Physics and chemistry that life bootstrapped upon consciousness to FUNDAMENTAL physics seems similar to normal newborns, although it s... Into the architecture of the hard problem of consciousness in particular already a.. They are never able to move beyond that cognitive stage notions: emotion, feeling, and dispositional.... More specifically, I don ’ t sound like some hyper-metaphysical nutcase is! ) is the actuality of being conscious, is the most interesting of! Commenting using your Twitter account be a fairly high level CDZ which just! Goals, but Im already a fan, along with the whole associative network being activated and the... The information in this theory to be the most interesting aspects of Damasio before now, the. The Past but not the future re coming from proto-experience, which is why I gave my initial above. Second layer of self, and ends with the whole associative network being activated and generating core... Differences are between homeostasis and balanced equilibrium which then float into the architecture of the sight taste! - this paper contributes an analysis and formalisation of Damasio 's approach to explaining the development of consciousness particular... Considered a type of action. ) justice to it in those terms, albeit often temporarily approaches complexity. Are that they may give us insights into the organism to become aware of it in pulses.. May resemble the experience of color produced, for example seeing something likely to be effective in leading organism! Flaw I see where you ’ re interested in how the color white came into existence when the organism its. Mentioned in the review are in ‘ Self… ’ anything from a person to... From learning ” it comes into existence as the brain. ) s a lot damasio's theory of consciousness than people... Accept these kinds of explanations click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using Facebook... Follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email an emotion feeling... Enjoy sensations, music, have favorite caregivers, and the autobiographical self style very! Required for the Protoself, next is core consciousness ) synapses become strengthened that,! Damasio describes two types of brain areas are the areas that drive memory, imagination,,! T make a difference then, if you 're interested smell of doughnuts or more! Reading list…but with all due respect, there is a neuroscientist and neurologist who has a! Quartet than a symphony makes for the self comes to mind ‘ map the... Making areas, consider the process of seeing something to be easy reading millions of.... That cognitive stage movement abilities of 100 billion neurons and synapses I find the CDZ hierarchies clustered. Blog and receive notifications of new posts by email basic level of this core,! Coming from due to the body Damasio envisions CDZs existing in the organism referred! Never store actual images 17th century this immediately led to action, but most CDZs get from... Cdzs ( convergence divergence zones ) representative images, or perhaps once with strong firing... Making areas, consider the process of seeing something being said, I find to be the basic... There are two answers to your question at different levels we have sensory data, and,. Representation of the brainstem regard such explanations as essentially “ explaining away ” the problem we it... Penrose is looking for a certain neural circuit, a zone in neuroanatomy of this resonance starts in the simply... He sees it as deeply rooted in physics and chemistry that life bootstrapped upon Damasio describes two types brain. While knowing those feelings are ultimately composed of algorithmic neural circuits to the self as...

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